Oxidation is a way to create a non-conducting layer on Si wafers. Engineers carefully create isolation sites in order to channel the electrons for conduction. Having the ultimate goal of creating a transistor gate oxide in mind, the session will start by discussing various uses of the oxides and introduce wet and dry oxidation methods. The oxidation physics and chemistry will be highlighted heuristically and simulation methods will be offered to estimate the finalized oxide thicknesses. In contrast, ion implantation enables the engineers to assign certain areas to be more conductive. Next, the ion implantation tool will be introduced. The ion implantation mechanism will be studied by using a simulator for different dopant scenarios with different energies. Finally, atomic layer deposition as an emerging deposition method to achieve ultimate control over the thickness and quality will be covered. Atomic layer deposition of an alumina layer will be studied in-depth and the final thickness will be found out using an ellipsometer.